As this site is designed to help inform dancers how to utilize exercise as a means of improving our swing dancing, I found that it’s only appropriate to start off revealing what components of fitness does Lindy Hop really utilizes. This will allow all of you to have an idea on what to ask questions about if you have already been doing this or directions on how and where to start.
What is a Needs Analysis?
The needs analysis is the starting point of any training program. It consists of determining the basic needs of the individual in accordance with the target activity. The analysis generally focuses on three primary areas: physiological, biomechanical and medical (Hoffman 2002). The physiological analysis focuses on determining the primary energy source used during activity (ATP-PC, Glyoclytic and Oxidative). Additional needs of the dance are analyzed by examining the emphasis placed on other major fitness components these of which being strength, power, speed, agility and flexibility. This information will give us an idea of how intense the exercises will need to be, how much rest will be needed to properly simulate dancing and adapt the body correctly in training for the dance.
My Analytical Findings
First we must determine if Lindy Hop is aerobic cardio or anaerobic. If cardio is aerobic it’s low intensity and will utilize oxygen to burn fat for energy. Anaerobic cardio is higher intensity and utilizes carbohydrates for energy as there isn’t enough time for oxygen to be utilized to burn fat. This can be determined by looking at heart rate zone ranges going off a variety of estimation formulas. At All Follows Eve in Fort Worth, Texas in early November, I wore a heart rate monitor during the Friday evening dance and found that I predominately stayed in my zone 2 heart rate range (aerobic zone) which means I was using aerobic energy system most of the time. I crossed over to be a bit anaerobic at times for faster songs. Cardiovascular training will be covered in more depth down the rode.
Lindy utilizes a good deal of strength both for the lead and the follow. The lead has to be able to move his partner with his body as the follow has to be able to control her body while being impeded from time to time. A lot of this strength comes from the core which encompasses your abdominal muscles (abs), hips and lower back. Lower body speed, power and agility or foot quickness is a great asset to have as this allows the dancers to be able to dance to faster tempos and allows footwork variations as well. Upper body strength is vital as the shoulders and upper back are engaged the most. Flexibility is important in the shoulders for both leads and follows to avoid injury there and in the hips primarily for follows as this allows for awesome swivels and switches. Leads benefit from having flexibility in that area as well they need to be able to turn freely to complete a good swing out.
While analyzing the dance there are a lot of different movements that happen in all different planes of motion frontal (away and towards body) sagittal (front to back) and transverse (rotation on axis). Depending on a dancers style you can move in all of these planes but here are the most common below and I’ll provide a chart that gives visual reference so bear with me if this gets a bit squirrely. This link will help give you a visual and explain in more detail http://www.teachpe.com/anatomy/movements.php
Starting with the shoulders you’ll have flexion and extension this occurs when moving from open to closed position and vice versa. Internal and external rotation mainly happens with leads using the right arm to lead pop turns or catch a follow for a lindy circle or swing out. Some people tend utilize circumduction which is normally done for arm styling. Usually a follow does this arm circle when being pulled in for another swing out; watch Maeva Truntzer and Sharon Davis https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HY_fodTVzbk.
Hips tend to stay neutral but will externally rotate while doing circular movement as the follows internally and externally rotate to swivel. Hip abduction and adduction occur sometimes on dancer preference if they do a certain move (Bell kicks and slip slops to name a few). There’s also flexion and extension at the knees and hips for rock steps and the dorsiflexion (toes point up) and plantar flexion (toes point down) of the foot and ankle. Here’s a video of Skye and Frida in Slow motion to help you visualize this. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=waYJdPx8G3s.
The range of motion varies depending on the moves a dancer chooses and the speed of force on each joint varies as some moves carry more momentum then others and song speed/tempo comes into play. The muscle action that’s most apparent is concentric (shortening) and eccentric(lengthening) and some isometric movement. The shoulder muscles use eccentric contractions to slow down pulling and concentric to start movement for leads. The muscles in the legs constantly lengthen and contract as you pulse on the dance floor. If you hold any pose you’re using isometric contractions. In the video Jamin Jackson demonstrates a lot of these actions while balancing one leg he’s pulsing and strikes isometric holds on breaks. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hbbNSXafeyc
This portion of the needs analysis is pretty much different depending on what an individual has had happen to them during their life. So I can’t really make a general deduction for everyone which this makes creating a workout program very individualized. As I need to do work to strengthen an ankle that I had sprained and learned to dance on and take into account a hip strain I experienced while running track and patella tendonitis and now Golfers Elbow but I can go over common places of injuries for dancers though.
While seeking the knowledge of more experienced dancers that I know and love to see what they have observed. A follow friend said most common injuries are general knee strain injuries, hip joint over-stress (from swiveling wrong), sore feet (from bad shoes), and possible shoulder injuries (usually from bad leads). As for leads Knees, hips and shoulder injuries are common due to long periods of social dancing, pushing oneself well passed the limits of fatigue. This will enlist a number of exercises and other modalities to be utilized for injury prevention and recovery.
So now that the needs analysis is done, we’ve set the foundation on what things we can address when it comes to training our bodies to be more efficient Lindy Hoppers and articles following this one will address a lot of the things that were touched on here feel free to ask me questions so I can answer them below or write a post about it. Take care and God Bless